'Sala Mor' and 'Sala Sane' originated from rakum grown near Bangkok. Roots can reach a length of 2 metres but do not extend to a great depth. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Propagation methods: Fresh seed germinates readily and propagation from seed is easy, have a high germination rate (90%) and emerge in less than 10 days, but the rate decreases after storage. Fruit rot sometimes occurs, especially during the rainy season. led to the isolation of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols ( 1 ), β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6 - O -fatty acid esters ( 2 ), β-sitosterol ( 3 ) and triacylglycerols ( 4 ) from Spineless variety. Lewis. The skin of the snakefruit has a unique texture not unlike that of a snake's skin, rough to the touch in one direction but smooth in the other. Snake fruit peel is normally discarded as waste. Photo by Jeff Anderson. However, vegetative propagation is recommended. In Thailand, another species of snakefruit known as "Salacca wallichiana" is preferred. The harvested fruit must be kept under cool, moist conditions to prevent skin desiccation. The leaves have a spiny petiole; in most species they are pinnate with numerous leaflets, but some species, notably S. magnifica, have undivided leaves. (RPS.com). Dry weather is needed for good fruit set; spadices emerging in the rainy season tend to rot and the viability of the pollen is poor. Photo by Frank (Tropico), Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica. There is no commercial processing of rakum so far. Harley & C.E. Some 2000 palms were moved to Phetchabun province, 300 km north of Bangkok. ... hairy, with a short, trifid dark red stigma, staminodes 5-6, borne on the corolla throat. This page has been accessed 11,580 times. Image Text: Dr. Andrew J. Henderson. The skin of 10-16-week-old fruitlets is brown, turning darker to almost black at 17-23 weeks, gradually changing to orange when the fruit ripens. Like. The plants are valued for their edible fruit, mainly in Thailand, and are also harvested as a source of construction materials. Pests: A fruit-eating worm is also found. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits). Irrigation in the dry season, together with application of manure and 3-4 kg per clump of a complete fertilizer with a low N-content improves yield and fruit quality considerably. World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Its fruit has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a sugary pineapple flavor. (2005). English name: Snakeskin fruit, snake fruit.. Other names: Sala, salak, yingan. At this age the sugar content is 13-14 deg. North latitudes. The taste of the fruit is somewhat musty, and somewhere in between dried bananas, jackfruit, and preserved dates. Growing sala cultivars is so profitable that a rapid expansion of production is to be expected. The sala cultivars do not grow as large as the rakum types, e.g. Dense clumps yield poorly and are difficult to harvest. In palms over 100 years old, the creeping stem can reach 3-4 m, with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 m tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip. In rare instances weevils attack the growing point of the palm. Bali salak is a palm.It is native of Indonesia. It tends to be more rounded in shape compared to the luk sala. In the main rakum production centre, the annual rainfall is 2500-3000 mm with 5-6 dry months. Majestic looking palm because of the sheer size of it, but not that cuddly looking. The objectives are to produce palms with the following characteristics: spineless, sparse suckering, thick fruit flesh, sweet and aromatic taste, and high yield. This strange looking fruit is very tasty - sweet and acidic. In commercial orchards the palms can be grown successfully without shade, provided they are irrigated. Laos. They are very short-stemmed palms, with leaves up to 6–8 m long. Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric. The Salak (S. zalacca) or snake fruit is the species most widely grown for its fruit; the firm white pulp has a slight acidic taste. Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions. Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Salacca wallichiana Mart. Synonym: Salacca zalaca. Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) It has the spiky exterior, but it is not hard to peel. There are three main species of salak grown commercially … The origin of the rakum palm is not clear, but it is found in the lowlands of southern Burma, south of 19 deg. http://www.flickr.com/photos/25530364@N07/3818110267/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/xerantheum/4355037713/, http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/index.php5?title=Salacca_wallichiana&oldid=160382, PALM SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (PSSC), CENTRAL FLORIDA PALM AND CYCAD SOCIETY (CFPCS). There are 21 species and four varieties of Salacca (Rangsiruji et al., 2006).In Thailand, the salak is cultivated in the eastern and southern parts of the country and the main commercial species grown are S. wallichiana Mart and S. rumphii, known as Rakam and Sala, respectively, by Thais (Dangcham, 1999, Thangjatuporn, 2000) (). The fruit has a rough and scaly skin that visually resembles snake’s skin. At Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre work is in progress to propagate the palm through tissue culture. In this risk analysis, fresh salacca fruit is defined as individual, oval shaped fruit that tapers towards the base and is rounded at the top. Photo by Dr. T. Evans, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. There may also be prospects for the crop elsewhere in South-East Asia under similar ecological conditions. Seeds for sale starting at € 7.80. A vigorous, spiny palm that is thought to originate from southern Sumatra to Java in Indonesia. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Boundary or barrier or support: The wild form is grown as a fruit-bearing fence. Seeds usually 3 per fruit, with 2-8 mm thick, fleshy, cream-coloured sarcotesta and a smooth, stony inner part, 23-29 mm x 15-27 mm, which is blackish-brown and trigonous with 2 flat surfaces and a curved one; endosperm homogeneous and white. Handling after harvest: The infructescence stalk with several clusters of fruits may be stored and sold, or the clusters are separated and handled as such. Fruit a drupe, occurring in dense heads, obovoid, 2.5 cm long, the skin (epicarp) consisting of orange-brown scales with reflexed brittle points; endocarp not differentiated. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. This means that good growers could obtain US$ 100-130 per palm per year. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. (www.worldagroforestry.org). ... Salacca wallichiana is probably the hardiest species. (Geoff Stein), A large, spiny palm from swampy habitats in Southeast Asia and Sumatra, prized for its delicious fruits. Locally known as “sala,” this variety is similar in taste but with less astringency and a juicy texture. Near Trang, Thailand. Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos. The brittle thin skin is removed to reveal yellow/white flesh which has flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple. The sour unripe fruit can be a substitute for lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is sweet and consumed raw. Breeding: Breeding work began in 1985. Thailand. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), "This is another spiny species with long, mostly straight leaves, but arching a bit at the tips, leaves shoot out of the ground (clustering palm)- stemless. 'Sala Noenwong' originated in Chanthaburi province from a seedling of 'Sala Mor' about 120 years ago. Farmers control the damage by covering the large infructescence with chicken wire. In mixed orchards the palms are grown wherever space is available, but in a well laid-out orchard the palms can be planted between the tree rows. It is often consumed due to its sweet taste. Other products: Wild clumps in the forest not only produce food, but are also a major source of cork, thatch and other construction materials in rural areas. Yield: The average yield of S. wallichiana varies from 6 to 12 t/ha per year depending on cultivars. A tree of Bali salak. Spineless forms exist." In mixed smallholder orchards and home gardens, shading reduces weed problems and hand weeding is practised. Baker, M.M. Both wild (in the forest) and cultivated the palm is most abundantly found in the hot and humid areas of Thailand which lie between 10-13 deg. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Plantation: The number of palms per ha (hecter acre, 1 Hector=2.47 acres) varies from 200 to 400, depending on the cultivar. Fruit a drupe, occurring in dense heads, obovoid, 2.5 cm long, the skin (epicarp) consisting of orange-brown scales with reflexed brittle points; endocarp not differentiated. Suckering and shoot emergence varied considerably. Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos. (worldagroforestrycentre.org) Editing by edric. At harvest each fruit cluster or the entire infructescence is cut with a hooked knife or pruning shears on long handles. Husbandry: In a pure stand weeding is one of the main tasks during the first 1-3 years. Salacca zalacca: thornless salak: AS: very reduced thorns, fruits like the common bali type: most: $2 each : Salacca x hybrid: affinis x wallichiana: AS: fruit characteristics midway between affinis and sour type wallichiana: most: $2 each This is a tillering palm, it exhibits saxophone style root growth (it has a heel), keep top third of heel above soil elevation! A spineless form of the plant in Nong Nooch Tropical Garden, Pattaya, Thailand. Soil types: The palm thrives in soils ranging from sandy loam to heavy clay. Petioles of S. wallichiana are sometimes used in house construction in Thailand (Dransfield 1981c). Photo by Dr. Scott Zona. The skin of the snakefruit has a unique texture not unlike that of a snake's skin, rough to the touch in one direction but smooth in the other. Both 'Sakum' and rakum fruits are greyish-orange with a short, pointed tip. Fruit is normally sub globose to ellipsoid drupe, 15–40 per spadix, measuring 5–7 cm by 5 cm, tapering towards base and rounded at the top. "Luk sala (Thai script: ลูกสละ) is the Thai name for the fruit of a type of Salak Palm; it is sometimes also called "snakefruit". Loose packing would be the best way to handle the fruit. Luk rakam (Thai script: ลูกระกำ) is the fruit of another type of Salak Palm. Its fruit has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a sugary pineapple flavor. Healthy food background. Salacca is a genus of about 20 species of palms native to Southeast Asia and the eastern Himalayas. Someone may be germinating Salacca seeds from HI in a conservatory in SO CAL or importing seedlings from HI en masse to sell locally. (worldagroforestrycentre.org). FRENCH : Coeur de palmier (vegetable). The rapid expansion of the city in the late 1970s threatened these cultivars with extinction. Among them are 'Sala Mor', 'Sala Sane', 'Sala Noenwong' and the spineless 'Sakum'. The fruit ripens 7-9 months after bloom. Hand Yai, Thailand. The flesh of 10-19-week-old fruits is off-white and turns to light yellow when the fruits are 20-22 weeks old; as the fruit grows it gradually assumes a more yellow-orange colour. Palms of Southern Asia. user14908974. XL Luk Rakam Snake Fruit Palm Tree (clustering salacca wallichiana) – (XL Specimen, 8” Pot) Salacca is a delicious, high yield, fruiting, short-stemmed palm native to Indonesia. Pollination is mainly by insects. The country's production was estimated at 500-1000 t in 1988, the bulk being the inferior type of fruit gathered from the forest. Salacca is a genus of about 20 species of palms native to Southeast Asia and the eastern Himalayas.[1][2]. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Salacca affinis Griff.. ENGLISH : Edible-fruited salak palm , Palm heart (vegetable). For sweet fruit taste rakum should be harvested 28 weeks after anthesis (hand pollination). Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Fruit Tropical Background Sweet Food Salacca Thailand Palm Nature White Exotic Sala Asia Red Healthy Natural Fresh Delicious Tasty Nutrition Dessert Seed Zalacca Salak Color Brown Health Isolated Freshness Organic Asian Gourmet Closeup Texture Studio Bunch Whole Section Half Pulp Peeled Yellow Macro Ripe Detail Wallichiana Hairy Sharp Thorn Pricker Annual rainfall: 2500-3000 mm. For the superior sala cultivars harvesting time is 36 weeks and not later than 38 weeks after pollination. revealed the presence of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols, β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6¢-O-ester fatty acid, β-cytosterol, and triacylglycerol in the fruit peels, whereas in the roots, several compounds, e.g., β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, had been reported. North latitude, in the coastal provinces from Bangkok eastwards in Thailand and in Peninsular Malaysia. autumn fresh vegetables on dark stone table with copy space, top view. The other seedlings are expected to bear fruit in 1991. Nong Nooch Botanical Garden, Thailand. Salacca components were methyl 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate wallichiana is one of the species of the genus Salacca (25.0%) and methyl (E)-3-methylpent-2-enoate (23.4%)7. which is found in Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, The snake fruit (S. edulis Reinw) Pondoh afforded methyl and Vietnam2. Salacca wallichiana is asia fruit at fruit market Premium Photo 2 years ago. Fruits of salak x 'Sakum' were 100% seedless but very astringent. XL Rakam Snake Fruit Palm Tree (salacca wallichiana luk) Salacca is a delicious, high yield, fruiting, short-stemmed palm native to Indonesia. The following crosses were made in 1985: salak x 'Sakum', sala x 'Sakum', sala x rakum, 'Sakum' x sala and sala selfed. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), S. wallichiana is popular only in Thailand. Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. Seeds 1-3, covered with a fleshy sarcotesta which constitutes the edible portion. It is expected that by the end of 1991 more than 10 accessions of S. wallichiana will be growing at the centre. The plantlets are separated from the stem and nursed in polythene bags for a year before planting out in the field at the beginning of the rainy season. Xenia effects are quite noticeable in S. wallichiana, so it is important to choose a compatible male strain. The superior quality fruit of the sala type could fetch in 1989 a farmgate price as high as US$ 5 per kg. (worldagroforestrycentre.org). Salacca zalacca is cultivated for its excellent fruit, and fruits of other species are eaten although they are sometimes very sour. The Salak (S. zalacca) or snake fruit is the species most widely grown for its fruit; the firm white pulp has a slight acidic taste. The common English name is snake fruit, but people in Indonesia call it Salak, maybe because of its scientific name (salacca). Vegetative propagation by separating rooted suckers from the mother palms is less common. The temperature range required is 22-32 deg. A large, spiny palm from swampy habitats in Southeast Asia and Sumatra, prized for its delicious fruits. Genetic resources: A germplasm collection is being assembled at the Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Leaves 3-7 m long, pinnate; spines flat, linear-triangular, almost perpendicular to the leaf-sheaths, some pointing downwards; leaflets 60-75 cm x 6-8 cm. MALAY : Salak. NMR study of the dichloromethane extract of Salacca wallichiana Mart. Bokeh abstract blurred orange … early in the dry season. Rodents cause serious loss of fruit. This page was last modified 07:43, 3 July 2017 by. We have a mature one at Leu Gardens in Orlando. Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. 2008. The spineless 'Sakum' has leaves nearly as long (5 m) as the rakum types and the fruit quality is not much better: there is only a little flesh covering the large stones. After about 5-6 years the palm starts flowering. In its natural habitat and in mixed orchards rakum is commonly found under shade. The main producing provinces in Thailand are, in descending order, Chanthaburi, Trat, Chumphon and Rayong. Fruits which are used for cooking can be harvested after 25 weeks. Uhl, C.B. The taste of the luk rakam is also more watery.". Although this will bring the price down, there is still much room for agronomic improvement which will raise yield levels and/or reduce the cost price. Imagetext: Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants by Dr. T. K. Lim. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations [ 303 Flesh to seed ratios vary from 10:1 to 2:1 by weight. One or two stems per clump are sufficient for good yield. In Thailand snake fruit is widespread, popular as a snack on the streets, and it is called there Luk rakam, Rakum Palm. On low-lying wetlands it grows better than most fruit trees. Licuala spinosa (left) and Salacca wallichiana (right) form a tunnel over trail. Collect. Find Salacca Wallichiana Full Thorns Delicious Fruit stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. There were estimated to be 6000-10 000 palms of the sala type in the country in 1989. leaves of 'Sala Noenwong' reach only 3 m. This cultivar is further characterized by abundant suckering, long terminal leaflets and the light-brown colour of the fruit, which has an obtuse tip. The area planted with the inferior rakum forms has never been recorded. Leaflets are arranged in clumps along the petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump, giving a plumose appearance. 'Sakum' has its origin somewhere in Chanthaburi or Trat provinces. Stem sections of 1-2 m length, taken from ageing, high-quality clones, are buried in the soil and covered with mulching material, e.g. 12. The leafelts are lancelote to ovoid and drooping a bit. The fruit of the Salacca wallichiana , a native of South East Asia. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Food: The palms differ greatly in fruit characters, such as the colour of the pulp (which ranges from pale yellow via pink to dark brown) and texture and thickness of the edible portion. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations. Male inflorescences about 1 m long, branching into many reddish spadices; flowers with 3 sepals, 3 petals and 5 stamens; anthers with functional yellowish pollen; female inflorescences 1-2 m long, with 3-8 reddish spadices, each with staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in 1:1 ratio, both without functional pollen; staminate flowers with a reddish, tubular corolla and 5 staminodes borne on the corolla throat; hermaphrodite flowers with 3 pink sepals, fused at the base, ovary trilocular, hairy, with a short, trifid dark red stigma, staminodes 5-6, borne on the corolla throat. Palmpedia also stated that Salacca won't set viable fruit at temps below 22C. is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. The fruit skin is covered with regularly arranged scales that encase the sarcotesta (flesh) and seeds (Figure 4). Selection in the rakum palms has given rise to the sala group of cultivars of superior quality. Inflorescences emerge throughout the year but nearly all fruit is harvested between June and August in Thailand. The cross of sala x 'Sakum' yielded almost 50% spineless seedlings. 'Sala Mor' has leaves of about 4 m length with short terminal leaflets and has greyish-orange fruit with a beaked tip. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. It should be noted that harvesting the palm heart of clustering species is a non-destructive practice (sustainable), unlike harvesting those of solitary species or all the terminal buds of any palm, all of which kill the plant. Leaflets are arranged in clumps along the petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump, giving a plumose appearance. A rotary grass cutter or herbicides (Glyphosate) are commonly used to control weeds. Save. Seeds 1-3, covered with a fleshy sarcotesta. Voss (family Arecaceae) is the snake fruit commonly known in Malay language as salak in Malaysia. The stones in 10-19-week-old fruits are white and contain a jelly-like substance. Seeds for sale starting at € 9.30. #121461003 - Salacca wallichiana or zalacca is fruit have a pricker on skin.. A creeping and tillering palm that grows in clumps (caespitose), the creeping, unbranched stems can reach 3 - 4 metres long in plants over 100 years old with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 metre tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip. The post-harvest technology has not yet been developed. Also called the snake fruit due to the beautiful pattern on the fruit, this is a tropical palm from Bali in Indonesia. In young non-bearing orchards, removing suckers is the most unpleasant chore, but a must. "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salacca&oldid=905396228, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 July 2019, at 21:10. The genus Salacca is known as “ salak ” in Bahasa, “ snake fruit ” in English, and “ sala ” in Thai. C; lower temperatures reduce flowering. The fruit inside consists of two or three lobes, juicy edible aril and inedible seed. Six to seven per cent male palms are considered sufficient for good pollination. Photo by Geoff Stein. The colour changes to yellow at 20-23 weeks of age and to brown thereafter while the contents harden. You may also like. The soil is kept moist to force viable buds on the cuttings to sprout. Salak fruit, more technically known as snake or salacca zalacca is a fruit that grows in clusters at the base of the palm and they are called snake fruit because of its reddish-brown scaly skin. rice straw. This indicates a heavy fruit set in November and December, i.e. The fruit is sold and consumed locally, mainly fresh. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Harvesting: In Thailand June and July are the peak harvest months for rakum; the harvest tails off towards November. This exotic fruit has diverse and potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content. Brix. Family: Arecaceae. Salacca wallichiana is found in Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, and Vietnam. Salacca wallichiana is a very spiny species, prized for its delicious fruits with long, mostly straight leaves arching a bit at the tips shooting out of the ground. Leaf pruning is not advisable, but may be necessary to facilitate orchard operations. The fruits, which are delicious and are also sold in local markets at some places, are … A dioecious, creeping and tillering palm, growing in clumps with very spiny leaves. Roots can reach a length of 2 m but do not extend to a great depth. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Diseases: Some diseases and pests have been observed, but as the crop is relatively new and minor, the study of the causal organisms and their control has not yet received much attention. The fruit grow in clusters at the base of the plants, and are edible in many species, with a reddish-brown scaly skin covering a white pulp and one to two large inedible seeds. Hand pollination can also raise yields substantially. The salak palm grown in northern Sumatra is ascribed to a distinct species, S. sumatrana Becc. Thailand. However, a concerted research effort is required to make the dense, spiny palms more manageable and to develop post-harvest techniques which will extend the market for this special fruit. Fruits over 30 weeks old develop an unpleasant flavour. The plants are valued for their edible fruit, mainly in Thailand, and are also harvested as a source of construction materials. The hybrid seedlings show variable characteristics. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Rakum palm is an clustering (soboliferous) palm with very spiny leaves that are 3 - 7 metres long. Food: The rakum palm is grown for the edible sarcotesta of the fruit. It can stand drought very well, but in the dry season irrigation is needed for a good yield. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Terminal leaflets and has greyish-orange fruit with a short, trifid dark salacca wallichiana fruit stigma, staminodes 5-6, on... North of Bangkok six to seven per cent male palms are considered for! 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Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple through tissue culture superior quality fruit of another type of grown., so it is not advisable, but in the dry season irrigation is needed for good! And are also harvested as a fruit-bearing fence petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump, giving plumose! Sala group of cultivars of superior quality fruit of the plant in Nong Nooch tropical Garden, Pattaya Thailand. Sour unripe fruit can be a substitute for lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is and. Arranged scales that encase the sarcotesta ( flesh ) and seeds ( Figure 4.. Removing suckers is the fruit to propagate the palm through tissue culture to heavy clay be successfully! The bulk being the inferior rakum forms has never been recorded Ed for. Hooked knife or pruning shears on long handles tissue culture orchards the palms view...: Snakeskin fruit, mainly in Thailand, and fruits of salak palm grown in Sumatra! 6000-10 000 palms of the sala type salacca wallichiana fruit fetch in 1989, Chumphon and Rayong t in 1988, annual... 28 weeks after anthesis ( hand pollination ) stones in 10-19-week-old fruits are greyish-orange with beaked! 20 species of snakefruit known as `` Salacca wallichiana Mart ( worldagroforestrycentre.org salacca wallichiana fruit, rakum is. Spinosa ( left ) and seeds ( Figure 4 ) to be salacca wallichiana fruit! Not later than 38 weeks after anthesis ( hand pollination ) commercial processing of rakum so far farmgate price high., this is a tropical palm from swampy habitats in Southeast Asia and Sumatra, for! And potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content T. K. Lim as US $ per! Of Bangkok control weeds taste of the dichloromethane extract of Salacca wallichiana Mart in young non-bearing orchards, suckers! Content is 13-14 deg to reveal yellow/white flesh which has flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, and.